Man

Agustin Demetrio Martinez Carrasco

Profesor Titular

UNIVERSIDAD DE VALPARAÍSO, CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARIO DE NEUROCIENCIAS DE VALPARAÍSO

Valparaíso, Chile

Líneas de Investigación


Structure, function and gating regulation of Hemichannels and Gap Junction. Mechanism of Cx26 mutations in Deafness. Role of Hemichannels in the sensory transduction mechanisms in the organ of Corti. Role of hemichannels in neural plasticity.

Educación

  •  Fisiología, PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE. Chile, 1999
  •  Ciencias Biológicas, PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE CHILE. Chile, 1991

Experiencia Académica

  •   Research Associate Full Time

    The University of Chicago

    Medicine

    Chicago, Estados Unidos

    Enero 1999 - Enero 2004

  •   Profesor Titular Full Time

    UNIVERSIDAD DE VALPARAISO

    Ciencias

    Valparaíso, Chile

    Enero 1999 - A la fecha

Experiencia Profesional

  •   Research Associate Full Time

    University of Chicago

    Chicago, Estados Unidos

    Enero 1999 - Enero 2004

  •   Profesor Titular Full Time

    Universidad de Valparaiso

    Valparaíso, Chile

    Enero 2004 - A la fecha

Formación de Capital Humano


Advising of pre-graduate theses

1.- Rodrigo Acuña. Determinación del dominio de transmembrana implicado en la homo-oligomerización de conexinas 43 y 26 mediante la técnica de TOXCAT. Bioquímico, PUCV. 2007
2.- Vania Figueroa. Efectos del ácido retinoico y el factor neurotrófico ciliar sobre el patrón de expresión de connexina43 y sus consecuencias en la diferenciación neuronal de células P19. Bioquímico, PUCV. 2007
3.- Carla Pacheco. Regulación de la neurogénesis en células del epitelio olfatorio dependiente de la vía de comunicación intercelular mediada por Uniones en Hendidura. Bioquímico, PUCV. 2007
4.- Daniela Correa. Papel del C terminal en la formación y permeabilidad/selectividad de Uniones en Hendidura de Cx43 y Cx45. Bioquímico, PUCV. 2007
5.- Oscar Jara. Efectos de mutaciones de la Conexina 26, causantes de sordera genética, sobre el tráfico y formación de Uniones de Hendidura. Bioquímico, PUCV. 2010
7.- Catherine Estay. Papel de Cx43 en el desplazamiento de Fibroblastos embrionarios. Licenciatura en Biología/Química-UV. 2011.
8.- Carolina Flores. Rol de hemicanales de Panexina 1 en la migración cellular de fibroblastos dérmicos. Licenciatura en Biología/Química-UV. 2013
9.- Paula Mujica. Mechanism of syndromic mutations located in the extracellular loop of Cx26. Undergraduate Biochemistry degree PUCV. 2015 ?

Advising of post-graduate theses

1.- Jorge Castex. Papel del carboxilo terminal en la funcionalidad y permeabilidad de hemicanales de Cx43. (Master degree in Neuroscience, UV)
2.- Miguel Fuentes. Papel de la comunicación intercelular mediada por uniones en hendidura y hemicanales durante el proceso de diferenciación de células madres de piel aulta. (Master degree in Neuroscience, UV)
3.- Ricardo Ceriani. Caracterización de la mutante Cx26N14Y y su efecto en la formación y funcionalidad de Uniones en Hendidura y Hemicanales formados por las connexinas 26 y 43 (Master degree in Neuroscience, UV)
4.- Jaime Maripillán. Papel del citosqueleto en el ensamblaje y tráfico de Hemicanales y Uniones en Hendidura. (Master degree in Neuroscience, UV)
5.- Carolina Flores. Regulación de la plasticidad neuronal estructural por Panx1. (Master degree in Neuroscience, UV).
6.- Vania Figueroa. Role of connexin 26 hemichannels in the regulation of intracellular calcium signal induced by activation of purinergic receptors, under physiological and pathological conditions. (PhD. In Neuroscience; Co-Advisor). 2013
7.- Arlek Gonzalez. Dynamin-2 regulates exocytosis in adrenal chromaffin cells through a mechanism that involves actin polymerization (PhD. In Neuroscience. Co-Advisor). 2013.
8.- Isaac Garcia. Role of the Amino Terminus of Cx26 in the regulation of channel oligomerization and function. (PhD. In Neuroscience). 2014
9.- Oscar Jara. Regulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels by actin cytoskeleton and RhoA. (PhD. In Neuroscience)
10.- Elvira Cortese. Mechanism of ototoxicity mediated by Panx1. (Master degree in Neuroscience)
11.- Ana Abbot. Pathological mechanisms of aberrant hetermeric channels Cx26S17F/Cx30 in syndromic deafness. (Ph in Neuroscience).


Difusión y Transferencia


Scientific Meeting and Symposium presentations (2010-2015). ?
International Scientific Meetings
1.- I.E Garcia, R. Ceriani, O. Jara, J. Maripillán, A.D. Martínez. Syndromic and non-syndromic deafness mutations in the Cx26 aminoterminus differentially alter the function of hemichannels and gap junctions. ASCB meeting. Philadelphia, USA, 2010.
2.- Paola. Soto, Paola Fernández, Maximiliano Rovegno, Agustín D. Martínez, Bruno Cisternas, Felipe Court, Alexis Vielma, Oliver Schmachtenberg and Juan C. Sáez. Novel inter-oligodendrocyte communication pathway. International Gap Junction Conference, Ghent, Belgica, 2011.
3.- Andrés Canales, Jaime Maripillán, Oscar Jara, David Gómez, Patricio Orio, Agustín D. Martínez. MODELING THE DYNAMICS OF GAP-JUNCTION PLAQUE ASSEMBLY THROUGH A SELF-ORGANIZING MECHANISM. International Gap Junction Conference, Ghent, Belgica, 2011.
4.- Oscar Jara, Isaac García, Jaime Maripillán, Juan Carlos Sáez, Vania Figueroa, Viviana M. Berthoud, Eric C. Beyer and Agustín D. Martínez. DEAFNESS-ASSOCIATED CX26 MUTANTS DEMONSTRATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FIRST TRANSMEMBRANE DOMAIN IN CONNEXIN OLIGOMERIZATION AND CHANNEL FUNCTION. International Gap Junction Conference, Ghent, Belgica, 2011.
5.- V. Figueroa, O. Jara, A.D. Martínez, M. Fiori, G. Altenberg, and J.C. Sáez. Connexin Hemichannels in the purinergic signaling and their regulation in ototoxicity. International Gap Junction Conference, Ghent, Belgica, 2011.
6.- A.D. Martínez. Mutations in Cx26 and its role in genetic hearing loss. Summer course for postgraduate students: PROGRESS IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS: BASIC AND TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH. U de Concepción. Concepción, 2011.
7.- A.D. Martínez. How to learn to play the Tsuzumi without becoming deaf in the try ? NZ National eye centre, Seminar Series, The University of Auckland, NZ, 2012.
8.- I.E. García, R. Ceriani, J. Maripillán, O. Jara, A.D. Martínez. Gain of function of hemichannels produced by aberrant interactions between Cx43 and deafness-associated Cx26. International Gap Junction Conference 2013, USA, Charleston, 2013.
9.- Isaac E. García , Mauricio Retamal , Oscar Jara , Carlos Gonzalez and Agustín D. Martínez. ¿IS THE GAIN OF HEMICHANNEL ACTIVITY A COMMON FEATURE SHARED BY Cx26 SYNDROMIC DEAFNESS MUTANTS?. Biophysical Society, USA, 2014. ?
10.- Bernardo Pinto, Amaury Pupo, Isaac García, Agustín D Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos González. The first transmembrane segment of connexins and voltage-dependent gating regulation of hemichannels. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
11.- Pavel Prado, Oscar Jara, Cristián Aedo, Donald Brown, Álvaro Ardiles, Daphne Marfull, Virginia Olivares, Juan C Saéz, Paul Delano, Agustín D. Martínez. Lack of Pannexin 1 alters permeability of cochlear supporting cells and induces sensorineural hearing loss. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
12.- Oscar Jara, Jaime Maripillán, Fanny Momboisse, Isaac Garcia, Bernardo Pinto, Carlos González, Ana María Cárdenas, Agustín D Martínez. Regulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels by actin cytoskeleton and RhoA. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
13.- Isaac Garcia, Carlos González, Jorge Contreras, Agustín D Martínez. Slow deactivation kinetics of hyperactive heteromeric hemichannels formed by Cx26 N-terminus KID-associated mutants and Cx43. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
14.- Carolina Flores, Jacqueline Vasquéz, Jaime Maripillán, Tomás Egaña, Donald Brown, Agustín D Martínez. Pannexin and purinergic signaling in fibroblast migration and dermal regeneration. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
15.- J. Gonzalez-Casanova, D. Rojas-Gomez, A.D. Martinez, S. Dhein. Angiotensin (1-7) induces adipogenesis and down regulation of Cx43 in 3T3-L1 cell line; possible role of p38 and focal adhesion kinase. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
16.- Fanny Momboisse, María J Olivares, Ximena Baéz, María J Guerra, Carolina Flores-Muñoz, Juan C Saez, Agustín D Martínez, Ana M Cárdenas. Pannexin 1 channels: a new actor in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
17.- Paula Mujica, Oscar Jara, Jaime Maripillan, Agustín D. Martínez. Mechanism of deafness mutations associated to the first extracellular loop of Cx26 unveils a new cis interaction properties between connexins. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
18.- Claudia Pareja, Tomas Perez-Acle, Yerko Escalona, Jose Antonio Garate, Alejandro Bernardin, Agustín D. Martínez, Isaac Garcia, Juan C Saez, Raul Araya, Tien Huynh, Seung-gu Khan, Ruhong Zhou. Is there a voltage-controlled hydraulic gating mechanism in human connexin hemichannels?. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.
19.- D. Rojas-Gomez, J. Gonzalez-Casanova, S. Dhein, A.D. Martínez. Inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipogenesis by Angiotensin II: differential regulation of the gap junction protein Connexin 43 and ?-catenin signaling. International Gap Junction Conference, Valparaíso, 2015.

National Scientific Meetings?
1.- I.E. Garcia, R. Ceriani, O. Jara, J. Maripillan, A. Canales, J.C. Saez, A.D. Martinez. Mutations in the N terminus of the Connexin26 and its role in genetic hearing loss. Reunion Anual Sociedad de Bilogia Celular de Chile / Pucon, 2010.
2.- O. Jara, I. García, J. Maripillan, A. Canales, J.C. Sáez, A.D. Martínez. ALTERED PERMEABILITY OF GAP JUNCTION CHANNELS AND HEMICHANNELS FORMED BY MUTANTS OF Cx26 RELATED TO NON-SYNDROMIC DEAFNESS. Reunion Anual Sociedad de Bilogia Celular de Chile / Pucon, 2010.
3.- J. Castex, O. Jara, J. Maripillán, C. Estay, A.D. Martínez. Regulation of hemichannel permeability by the Carboxyl Terminal domain of Cx43. Reunion Anual Sociedad de Bilogia Celular de Chile / Pucon, 2010.
4.- A. Canales, D. Gomez, J. Maripillan, O. Jara, I. García, P. Orio, A.D. Martinez. Modeling the dynamic of Gap-junction plaque assembling through a self-organizing mechanism. Sociedad de Bilogia Celular de Chile / Pucon, 2010.
5.- Agustín D. Martínez. Deafness-associated Cx26 mutants demonstrate the importance of the first transmembrane domain in connexin oligomerization and channel function. 40 years of ion channels. A marriage of convenience. Valparaíso, 2011.
6.- Agustín D. Martínez. Connexin oligomerization and trafficking. International Workshop Structure and function of connexin and pannexin channels. Valparaíso, 2012.
7.- Agustín D. Martínez. Is syndromic deafness a hemichannel disease?. International Workshop Structure and function of connexin and pannexin channels. Valparaíso, 2012.
8.- Agustín D. Martínez. ¿ Como conversan las células? Charla Explora, Villa Alemana, 2012.
9.- O. Jara, J. Maripillán, I.E. Garcia, J. Ewer, A.D. Martinez. ACTIN CYTOSKELETON REGULATION OF Cx26 AND Cx43 HEMICHANNELS. Reunión anual de la Sociedad de Biología Celular de Chile 2013. Puerto Varas, 2013
10.- C. Flores, C. Estay, T. Egaña, D. Brown, A.D. Martínez. ROLE OF HEMICHANNELS IN FIBROBLAST MIGRATION. Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Chilena de Biología Celular, Puerto Varas, 2013.
11.- A.O. Ardiles, C. Flores, J. Ahumada, J.C. Sáez, M. Fuenzalida, A.D. Martínez. Loss of pannexin 1 modifies the threshold for synaptic plasticity induction in hippocampus. Reunión anual de la Sociedad de Biología Celular de Chile. Puerto Varas, 2013.
12.- Agustín D. Martínez. How to learn to play the Tsuzumi without becoming deaf in the try. VIII Congreso Iberoamericano de Biofísica - IX Reunión Anual Sociedad Chilena de Neurociencia. Valparaíso, 2013.
13.- Agustín D. Martínez. Aberrant connexin oligomerization in genetic deafness. CHILEAN SOCIETY FOR CELL BIOLOGY XXVII ANNUAL MEETING. Puerto Varas, 2013.
14.- A. Ardiles, C. Flores-Muñoz, A.D. Martínez. Pannexin 1 regulates the NMDA receptors trafficking through the modification of actin. Workshop “Current advances in membrane trafficking: Implications for polarity and diseases” organizado por EMBO, Puerto Natales, 2014. ?
15.- Bernardo Pinto, David Baez-Nieto, Agustín D. Martínez, Ramón Latorre, Carlos González. Dentification of Residues Involved in Cx26 Hemichannel Slow Gating. X Annual Meeting. Sociedad Chilena de Neurociencia. Valdivia, 2014. ?
16.- A. Ardiles, C. Flores-Muñoz, P. Muñoz, A.D. Martínez. PANNEXIN 1 REGULATES BIDIRECTIONAL HIPPOCAMPAL SYNAPTIC PLASTICITY IN ADULT MICE. X Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Chilena de Neurociencia. Valdivia, 2014. ?
17.- P. Mujica, O. Jara, J. Maripillán, A.D. Martínez. Mechanism of deafness mutations associated to the first extracellular loop of Cx26 unveils a new interaction property between connexins. Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Chilena de Neurociencia. Valdivia, 2014. ?
18.- P. Prado-Gutierrez, D. Marfull, D. Brown, A. Ardiles, C. Flores, V. Olivares, A.D. Martínez. Lack of pannexin 1 in the murine cochlea results in sensorineural hearing loss. Reunión Anual de la Sociedad Chilena de Neurociencia, Valdivia, 2014. ?

Organization of International and National Workshops, Symposium and Congress
1.- International Workshop. Structure and function of connexin and pannexin channels. Valparaíso, 2012.
2.- International Symposium. 40 years of ion channels. A marriage of convenience. Valparaíso, 2011.
3.- Serie de seminarios y cursos Proyecto Mecesup 0804. Facultad de Ciencias / Auditorio de Farmacia, Valparaíso, 2010.
4.- Symposium: Role and regulation of channels and hemichannels formed by connexins or pannexins in the nervous system. IX Annual meeting of the Chilean Society of Neuroscience & VIII Ibero American Congress of Biophysics. Valparaíso, 2013.
5.- Symposium: “Cell Membrane Channels Made by Connexins or Pannexins are Key Players in Genetic and Acquired Diseases”. CHILEAN SOCIETY FOR CELL BIOLOGY XXVII ANNUAL MEETING. Puerto Varas, 2013.
6.- International workshop. Biophysic of Hemichannel and Gap Junction Channels: A Theoretical and Practical Training. PUC-Santiago/UV-Valparaíso 2015 (24 a 27 de Marzo).
7.- International Gap Junction Conference 2015. Valparaíso, 2015 (http://cinv.uv.cl/igjc2015/). Este es un evento de envergadura mayor, la principal reunión Internacional sobre las “Gap Junctions” que se hace cada dos años alternado entre USA y Europa, por lo que es la primera vez que se hace en el hemisferio sur. Al evento asistieron cerca de 200 investigadores mayormente extranjeros. La postulación para la realización de este congreso en Chile se presentó en la conferencia del 2012 en la ciudad de Charleston donde la mayoría de los asistentes eligió la opción de Valparaíso por sobre las opciones de Europa y Asia, constituyéndose ello en un gran logro y reconocimiento para nuestro grupo.



Tipos de Producción
 

Dtp Import/Article (40)

Mono-Heteromeric Configurations of Gap Junction Channels Formed by Connexin43 and Connexin45 Reduce Unitary Conductance and Determine both Voltage Gating and Metabolic Flux Asymmetry.
Charged Residues at the First Transmembrane Region Contribute to the Voltage Dependence of the Slow Gate of Connexins.
Connexinopathies: a structural and functional glimpse.
From Hyperactive Connexin26 Hemichannels to Impairments in Epidermal Calcium Gradient and Permeability Barrier in the Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome.
Carbon Monoxide: A New Player in the Redox Regulation of Cx- Hemichannels
Diseases associated with leaky hemichannels.
Habituation of auditory steady state responses evoked by amplitude-modulated acoustic signals in rats
Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness Syndrome-Associated Cx26 Mutants Produce Nonfunctional Gap Junctions but Hyperactive Hemichannels When Co-Expressed With Wild Type Cx43
Characterization of a novel water pocket inside the human Cx26 hemichannel structure.
Proton channel models: Filling the gap between experimental data and the structural rationale.
Extracellular gentamicin reduces the activity of connexin hemichannels and interferes with purinergic Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells
Pannexin 1 channels: new actors in the regulation of catecholamine release from adrenal chromaffin cells.
Pannexin 1 Regulates Bidirectional Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Adult Mice
Role of connexin channels in the retinal light response of a diurnal rodent
Role of connexin channels in the retinal light response of a diurnal rodent.
Dynamin-2 Regulates Fusion Pore Expansion and Quantal Release through a Mechanism that Involves Actin Dynamics in Neuroendocrine Chromaffin Cells
Gap junction channels and hemichannels in the CNS: regulation by signaling molecules.
Linoleic acid induces opening of connexin26 hemichannels through a PI3K/Akt/Ca2+-dependent pathway
Octodon degus (Molina 1782): a model in comparative biology and biomedicine.
SVCT2 vitamin C transporter expression in progenitor cells of the postnatal neurogenic niche
Critical role of the first transmembrane domain of Cx26 in regulating oligomerization and function
Modulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels by growth factors.
The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of β2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of α-subunit in BK potassium channels.
Different domains are critical for oligomerization compatibility of different connexins
The Association of Dynamin with Synaptophysin Regulates Quantal Size and Duration of Exocytotic Events in Chromaffin Cells
Gap-junction channels dysfunction in deafness and hearing loss.
Connexin hemichannel composition determines the FGF-1-induced membrane permeability and free [Ca2+]i responses.
Connexin43 with a cytoplasmic loop deletion inhibits the function of several connexins.
Histamine reduces gap junctional communication of human tonsil high endothelial cells in culture.
Plasma membrane channels formed by connexins: their regulation and functions.
ACh-induced endothelial NO synthase translocation, NO release and vasodilatation in the hamster microcirculation in vivo.
Connexin43 and connexin45 form heteromeric gap junction channels in which individual components determine permeability and regulation.
Identification of second messengers that induce expression of functional gap junctions in microglia cultured from newborn rats.
Heterotypic docking of Cx43 and Cx45 connexons blocks fast voltage gating of Cx43.
In vivo assessment of microvascular nitric oxide production and its relation with blood flow
Gap junctions in cells of the immune system: structure, regulation and possible functional roles.
Regulation of astrocyte gap junctions by hypoxia-reoxygenation.
Arachidonic acid-induced dye uncoupling in rat cortical astrocytes is mediated by arachidonic acid byproducts.
Regulation of gap junctions by protein phosphorylation.
A carboxyl terminal domain of connexin43 is critical for gap junction plaque formation but not for homo- or hetero-oligomerization.

Grant (10)

Is there a voltage-controlled hydraulic gating in the human Connexin 26 hemichannel?
Voltage Sensor of Ion Channels: From Structure to Function

Article (9)

Lack of Pannexin 1 Alters Synaptic GluN2 Subunit Composition and Spatial Reversal Learning in Mice
RCAN1 Knockdown Reverts Defects in the Number of Calcium-Induced Exocytotic Events in a Cellular Model of Down Syndrome
The syndromic deafness mutation G12R impairs fast and slow gating in Cx26 hemichannels
Calcium binding and voltage gating in Cx46 hemichannels
Mono-Heteromeric Configurations of Gap Junction Channels Formed by Connexin43 and Connexin45 Reduce Unitary Conductance and Determine both Voltage Gating and Metabolic Flux Asymmetry
Extracellular gentamicin reduces the activity of con nexin hemichannels and interferes with purinergic Ca2+ signaling in HeLa cells
Critical role of the first transmembrane domain of Cx26 in regulating oligomerization and function
The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of beta 2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of alpha-subunit in BK potassium channels
Connexin43 with a cytoplasmic loop deletion inhibits the function of several connexins

Review (3)

Redox-mediated regulation of connexin proteins; focus on nitric oxide
Proton channel models Filling the gap between experimental data and the structural rationale
Modulation of gap junction channels and hemichannels by growth factors

Abstract (3)

Residues Involved in Cx26 Hemichannels Voltage Dependent Gating
Bradykinin-increased venular permeability is not mediated by nitric oxide
25
Agustin Martinez

Profesor Titular

Instituto de Neurociencia

UNIVERSIDAD DE VALPARAÍSO, CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARIO DE NEUROCIENCIAS DE VALPARAÍSO

Valparaíso, Chile

4
Isaac Garcia

Profesor Adjunto

Instituto de Neurociencias

Universidad de Valparaiso

Valparaiso, Chile

3
Juan Sáez

PONTIFICIA UNIVERSIDAD CATÓLICA DE CHILE

Santiago, Chile

2
Juan Saez

Professor

Physiology

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

Santiago, Chile

2
Tomas Perez-Acle

Full Professor

Computational Biology Lab

Fundación Ciencia para la Vida

Santiago, Chile

2
Vania Figueroa

Profesor Asistente

Instituto de Ciencias de la Salud

Universidad de O’Higgins

Rancagua, Chile

1
Jose Luis Vega

Profesor Asociado

Biomedico

Universidad de Antofagasta

Antofagasta, Chile

1
Mauricio Retamal

Profesor Asociado

Centro de Fisiología Celular e Integrativa

Universidad del Desarrollo

Santiago, Chile

1
CARLOS LAGOS

Profesor Asistente

FACULTAD DE MEDICINA Y CIENCIA

UNIVERSIDAD SAN SEBASTIÁN

SANTIAGO, Chile

1
Luis Cea

Profesor programa teaching

Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas

Universidad Autónoma de Chile

Santiago, Chile

1
Karel Mena

Profesor de Laboratorio

Ciencias Químicas

Universidad Andres Bello

Santiago, Chile

1
Alvaro Ardiles

Adjunct Professor

Medicine

Universidad de Valparaíso

Valparaiso, Chile

1
HELMUTH SANCHEZ

INVESTIGADOR JOVEN

Laboratorio de Conexinas y Panexinas

CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARIO DE NEUROCIENCIAS DE VALPARAISO

VALPARAISO, Chile

1
Sebastian Brauchi

Associate Professor

Physiology

Universidad Austral de Chile

Valdivia, Chile